Number in Spanish. Singular or plural

As in English (and in any other language), grammatical number can be singular or plural.

Singular: refers to a single being or object

Plural: refers to various beings or objects

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This difference is made in a very simple way. The singular hasn’t any specific ending ( desinence). The plural has the endings ( desinences ) -s or -es.

We add -s in nouns that end in unstressed vowels. Also, we add -s in nouns that end in stressed vowels -á, -é, -ó

Singular: casa, coche, gato, sofá, café, dominó                             

Plural: casas, coches, gatos, sofás, cafés, dominós

We add –es in nouns that end in stressed vowels -í, -ú. Also, we add -es in nouns that end in consonant.

Singular: iraní, tabú, árbol, dos, tres, cáncer

Plural: iraníes, tabúes, árboles, doses, treses, cánceres

Some nouns are always singular: cénit, caos, sed…

Some nouns are always plural (very few):  víveres, nupcias…

Some nouns use the plural to name a single object consisting of two parts:

gafas – anteojos – prismáticos

Adjectives and article always agree with the number of the noun:

El gato blanco     (S)

Los gatos blancos      (P)

El árbol grande   (S)

Los árboles grandes  (P)

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